Operant versus Reflex Assays

Different preclinical pain assays mean different things. Velocity Laboratories specializes in operant pain assays that allow access to the higher cognitive aspects of pain.

Operant Pain Assays

Reflexive Pain Assays

Clinical face validity

Yes

No

Requires

Learned, motivated behavior; spinal-cerebrospinal integration and cortical input

Spinal, supraspinal pathways; motor-efferent pathways

Assessment

Cognitive, sensory, emotional

Reflex and unlearned

Investigator

Independent

Dependent

Examples

Reward/conflict; place conditioning

Von Frey filaments; thermal plantar